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Quantitative trading does, however, carry some considerable risks and many quant strategies have been known to fail. Since financial markets are constantly changing, often in unpredictable or unexpected ways, a strategy that generates profits one day can lose money the next. The world of investing can be quite tribal, with each group asserting the superiority of their particular approach when compared with other approaches.

It is the next logical follow-on from econometrics and time series forecasting techniques although there is significant overlap in the two areas. Furthermore, contrary to human traders, these automated systems do not let emotions such as fear or greed affect investment choices. By removing emotions from decision-making and execution processes, traders can reduce some of the biases that can frequently impact their trading. In this article I’m going to introduce you to some of the basic concepts which accompany an end-to-end quantitative trading system. The first will be individuals trying to obtain a job at a fund as a quantitative trader. The second will be individuals who wish to try and set up their own “retail” algorithmic trading business.

## What Is Quant Trading?

Ultimately, many quantitative traders fail to keep with the changes in market conditions because they develop models that are temporarily profitable for the current market condition. Quantitative trading is a trading system that uses statistical and/or mathematical models to find opportunities and execute them. Transaction costs can make the difference between an extremely profitable strategy with a good Sharpe ratio and an extremely unprofitable strategy with a terrible Sharpe ratio. Depending upon the frequency of the strategy, you will need access to historical exchange data, which will include tick data for bid/ask prices. Entire teams of quants are dedicated to optimisation of execution in the larger funds, for these reasons. Consider the scenario where a fund needs to offload a substantial quantity of trades (of which the reasons to do so are many and varied!).

You should consider whether you understand how this product works, and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. HFT volume and revenue has taken a hit since the great recession, but quant what is cfd trading has continued to grow in stature and respect. Quantitative analysts are highly sought after by hedge funds and financial institutions, prized for their ability to add a new dimension to a traditional strategy.

Generally, the required skills to start quant trading on your own are the same as for a hedge fund. Thus, if you’re hoping to try out quant trading for yourself, you’ll need exceptional mathematical knowledge, so you can build and test your statistical models. Also, you will need a lot of programming skills to create your system from scratch.

- In fact, one of the best ways to create your own unique strategies is to find similar methods and then carry out your own optimisation procedure.
- Due to the high computing demands of quantitative trading, large financial institutions and hedge funds have typically used it.
- Risk management also encompasses what is known as optimal capital allocation, which is a branch of portfolio theory.
- With the basics of time series under your belt the next step is to begin studying statistical/machine learning techniques, which are the current “state of the art” within quantitative finance.

At this point, a quant will decide how frequently the system will trade — while high-frequency systems open and close many positions each day, low-frequency ones aim to identify swing and position trading opportunities. The rise of high-frequency trading in the new millennium introduced more people to the concept of quant, and by 2009, 60% of US stock trades were executed by high-frequency traders, who used mathematical models. Then, in the 90s, algorithmic systems started becoming more common, and more hedge fund managers embraced quant trading systems. However, it was the dotcom bubble that proved to be the turning point, with quant strategies proving less susceptible to the crazy buying of unknown internet stocks and the burst that followed. A long-term career as a quantitative analyst generally requires a graduate degree in a quantitative field such as finance, economics, mathematics, or statistics.

## Disadvantages of Quant Strategies

In addition to developing their own, quant traders often modify an existing strategy with a high success rate. Quantitative trading works by evaluating the probability that a specific outcome would occur using data-based strategies. It uses only statistical techniques and programming, unlike other types of trading.

## Quantitative Trading versus Algorithmic Trading

Degrees in theoretical physics, engineering, computer science, and other fields that deliver high-level training in mathematical modeling and other advanced quantitative techniques may also be acceptable. An experienced trader not using quantitative trading systems can successfully make trading decisions on a specialized number of shares before the quantity of incoming data overwhelms the decision-making process. The use of quantitative trading techniques automates tasks that were manually completed by investors.

## How to Hire for Successful Cultural Fit

By 2009, 60% of US stock trades were executed by HFT investors, who relied on mathematical models to back their strategies. Most firms hiring quants will look for a degree in maths, engineering or financial modelling. If you’re hoping to try out quant trading for yourself, you’ll need to be proficient in all these areas – with an understanding of mathematical concepts such as kurtosis, conditional probability and value at risk (VaR).

## What Do Quant Traders Really Do?

Investors who use quantitative trading utilize programming languages to conduct web scraping (harvesting) to extract historical data on the stock market. The historical data is used as an input for mathematical models in a process smart money concept called beta-testing of quantitative models. Although most quant traders work for the big institutions, which can afford the supercomputers and data needed for the analysis, a growing number of them are now trading on their own.

By the 90s, algorithmic systems were becoming more common and hedge fund managers were beginning to embrace quant methodologies. The dotcom bubble proved to be a turning point, as these strategies proved less susceptible to the frenzied buying – and subsequent crash – of internet stocks. Capital allocation is an important area of risk management, covering the size of each trade – or if the quant is using multiple systems, how much capital goes into each model.

As quantitative trading is generally used by financial institutions and hedge funds, the transactions are usually large and may involve the purchase and sale of hundreds of thousands of shares and other securities. However, quantitative trading is becoming more commonly used by us overnight markets individual investors. In the late 70s and 80s advancement in computing helped quant trading become more mainstream. One of them is the designated order turnaround (DOT) system, which enabled the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) to take orders electronically for the first time.

When the stocks revert to the mean price, both positions are closed for a profit. Another broad category of quant strategy is trend following, often called momentum trading. Trend following is one of the most straightforward strategies, seeking only to identify a significant market movement as it starts and ride it until it ends. Want to try out using an automated system, but not sure if you’re ready for quant? A key part of execution is minimising transaction costs, which may include commission, tax, slippage and the spread.